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(FCD) FUNDAMENTALS OF CATHOLIC DOGMA


(CCC) CATECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH
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(CE) CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA


(CIC) CODE OF CANON LAW


(TR) THIS ROCK, MAGAZINE, PUBLISHED BY CATHOLIC ANSWERS, EDITOR -  KARL
KEATING

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BIBLES

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(NAB) NEW AMERICAN BIBLE
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(DR)
DOUAY RHEIMS


(KJV) KING JAMES VERSION
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THEOLOGICAL GRADES OF CERTAINTY (FCD)

1. The highest degree of certainty appertains to the immediately revealed truths. The
belief due to them is based on the  authority of God Revealing (fides divina), and if the
Church, through, its teaching, vouches for the fact, that a truth is contained in Revelation,
one's certainty is then also based on the authority of the Infallible Teaching Authority of
the Church (fides catolica). If Truths are defined by a solemn judgment of faith (definition)
of the Pope or of a General Council, they are "de fide definita". (de fide)


2.Catholic truths or Church doctrines, on which the infallible Teaching Authority of the
Church has finally decided, are to be accepted with a faith which is based on the sole
authority of the Church (fides ecclesiastica). These truths are as infallibly ceratin as
dogmas proper.


3. A Teaching proximate to Faith (sententia fidei proxima) is a doctrine, which is regarded
by theologians generally as a Truth of Revelation, but which has not yet been finally
promulgated as such by the Church. (sent proxima)


4. A Teaching pertaining to the Faith, i.e., theologically certain (sententia ad fidem
pertinenis, i.e., theologice certa) is a doctrine, on which the Teaching Authority of the
Church has not yet finally pronounced, but whose truth is guaranteed by its intrinsic
connection with the doctrine of revelation (theological conclusion). (sent certa)


5. Common Teaching (sententia communis) is doctrine which in itself belongs to the field
of the free opinions, but which is accepted generally theologians.


6. Theological opinions of lesser grades of certainty are called probable, more probable,
well founded (sententia probabilis, probabilior, bene fundata). Those which are regarded
as being in agreement with the consciousness of Faith of the Church are called pious
opinions (sententia pia). The least degree of certainty is possessed by the tolerated
opinion (opinio tolerata), which is only weakly founded, but which is tolerated by the
Church.


With regard to the doctrinal teaching of the Church it must be well noted that not all the
assertions of the Teaching Authority of the Church on questions of Faith and morals are
infallible and consequently irrevocable. Only those are infallible which emanate from
General Councils representing the whole episcopate, and the Papal Decisions Ex
Cathedra (cf. D 1839). The ordinary and usual form of the Papal teaching activity is not
infallible.
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TEACHERS


DR. SCOTT HAHN, PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGY AT STEUBENVILLE
UNIVERSITY, OHIO


TIMOTHY GRAY, STUDENT OF DR. HAHN - Director of the Archdiocese of
Denver,
Catholic Biblical School


FATHER BILL HALBING, PRIEST OF THE ARCHDIOCESE OF NEWARK, NEW
JERSEY


FATHER BENEDICT GROESCHEL, FRANCISCAN FRIARS OF THE
RENEWAL, THE BRONX, NEW YORK


TIM STAPLES, RAISED BAPTIST, CONVERTED TO PENTECOSTAL, FINALLY
CAME HOME TO THE CATHOLIC CHURCH
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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